Elsinore Pk., .5 mi WSW, 4-1-12. © Ron Vanderhoff

Wolf lichen

Letharia vulpina

Unlike the Brown-eyed wolf lichen, Letharia columbiana, this species apparently does not reproduce sexually, so it does not have brown eyes.

"Wolf lichens are so named because of their common use as poisons for wolves and foxes in Europe centuries ago. The lichen, with its toxic vulpinic acid, was mixed with ground glass and meat, apparently a deadly combination."

Ascomycetes: Parmeliaceae

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Elsinore Peak vic., 12-31-15. © Ron Vanderhoff

Elsinore Peak vic., 12-31-15. © Ron Vanderhoff